Söylenen bir sözü bir başka kişiye olduğu gibi, yani ağzından çıktığı haliyle aktarılıyorsak buna  “Dolaysız anlatım” (direct speech) denir ve aktarılan söz tırnak içinde(“…”) yazılır.

Ayşe: I’m very tired. (Ayşe: Çok yorgunum)
Ayşe  said (that) “I’m very tired.”(Ayşe  “Çok yorgunum” dedi.)

Ali: My sister went to Ankara. (Ali: Kızkardeşim Ankara’ya gitti.)
Ali said (that) “My sister went to Ankara”. (Ali “Kızkardeşim Ankara’ya gitti” dedi.)

Dolaylı anlatımda (indirect speech) ise kullanılan zaman kipi ile kişilerde bazı değişiklikler yapmamız gerekir ve tırnak işareti kullanılmaz.

Ayşe: I’m very tired. (Ayşe: çok yorgunum)
Ayşe said she was very tired. (Ayşe çok yorgun olduğunu söyledi.)

Ali: My sister went to Ankara. (Ali: Kızkardeşim Ankara’ya gitti.)
Ali said his sister had gone to Ankara. (Ali kız kardeşinin Ankara’ya gittiğini söyledi.)

Görüldüğü gibi dolaylı anlatımda kullanılan zamandan bir derece önceki geçmiş zaman kipini kullanıyoruz.
Direct SpeechIndirect Speech
Simple PresentSimple Past
“I never wake up early” he said.He said (that) he never woken up early.
Present ContinuousPast Continuous
“I’m listening to music” he said.He said (that) he was listening to music.
Present PerfectPast Perfect
“I’ve finished my work” he said.He said (that) he had finished his work.
Present Perfect ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous
“I’ve been working for two hours,” he said.He said (that) he had been working for two hours.
Simple PastPast Perfect
“I went to cinema last night,” he said.He said (that) he had gone to cinema the previous night.
Past ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous
“I was working in Ankara last year,” he said.He said that he had been working in Ankara the previous year.
am/is/are going towas/were going to
shall/willshould/would
should/wouldshould/would
cancould/would be able to
couldcould
must, have tohad to
must, have to (future necessity)must/had to/would have to
must (deduction)must
don’t have todidn’t have to
mustn’twasn’t, weren’t to do/mustn’t
should/ought to/had bettershould/ought to/had better
maymight
mightmight
used toused to
Zaman zarfları ve yer zarfları sözün aktarıldığı yere ve zamana göre değişikliğe uğrar. Bunlar liste halinde verilmiştir.

tomorrow = the following day, the next day,
today
= that day, the same day
tonight
= that night
yesterday
= the day before, the previous day
the day before yesterday
= two days before
ago
= before, previously
the day after tomorrow
= in two days’ time
here
= there
this, these
= that, those
now
= then
last week/month/year
= the previous week/month/year
next week/month/year
= the following week/month/year

 

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